This fully bilingual website is an educators dream. Project of Heart is a website centered on the learning and sharing of the true history of Indigenous people in Canada. Their stated focus is inquiry, and as such they both;
encourage critical thought, and
provide eclectic resources for your learning journey.
Not only is this a resource hub set up to be used as a tool for inquiry based learning, but it includes the step by step instructions for doing so. On each of the separate resource pages the inquiry steps appear at the top of the page for convenience.
The very best element of the “Project of Hope” website are these steps for inquiry that lead you through the project. Like all good inquiry tools, the project is only getting started with the resources. To follow the model as outlined, learners must interact with the knowledge and complete their journey with reconciliatory action.
The resources included with the site are valid, historically accurate and whenever possible, primary sources of the history of Indigenous people in Canada. They are divided into resource type and appear to provide a balanced approach to the history. As a resource hub, this site links to videos and documents that highlight Indigenous people telling their own stories in ways that support their own continued journeys as well as historical documents that depict a settler mindset.
While “Project of Heart” was created by a non-Indigenous teacher, that should not detract from its value in any way. Sylvia Smith has received the Governor General’s Award for the site and has gone on to develop valid and rich relationships with Indigenous communities that have made this site a living (and growing) resource.
I have spent the last 4 days in professional learning focused on how to harness collaborative energies effectively to create effective growth and change. When they told us much of the learning would involve us practicing things to do in meetings with a bunch of strangers, I wanted to run for the hills. Like many people I know, I feel like I spend more time than I want to in meetings, and that many of them are not as useful as anyone would want. I was pleasantly surprised to see the standards for collaborative work were very helpful, and that I could use them with adult meetings and with students. The standards made group work much less painful as we practiced the processes connected to them.
Today’s learning is about three key issues (this group loves the alternative first letters, in this case ‘D’):
Decide on decision making
Design the surrounds
The decision making parts related to authentic tasks in the classroom, and to many of the committees I have worked with.
Deciding on decisions-making has 5 key questions a group needs to understand in a common way before a committee, teacher group, or administrator group starts work:
What topics are ours?
Who are we in the decision-making process?
What decision-making process will be used?
When and how will the decision be communicated?
There are five key standards that high functioning groups need to achieve. Many teachers who are familiar good group work in students will recognize the standards, but the standards can be strangely absent when we work together as adults:
Address one topic at a time – the facilitator plays a key role in ensuring focus and identifying items that are important for later discussion but not related to the topic at hand. An important part of this standard is helping people feel they have a role in self-monitoring relevance, and relating that to valuing accomplishing the goal. We watched samples of how to clarify a topic, and what to do to ensure it is understood, but most importantly how to help adults understand the relevance.
Use one process – This is a key one because brains need to do different things depending on the intent of a process. We learned a lot about how to ensure a process is understood well, including that learners understand the purpose of the process.
Balance participation – Balanced participation is significant to me because it ensures groups do the best problem solving and thinking. We learned many process for proving opportunity for balance. I have associated most with professional learning or teaching, not with meetings or groups of adults. Many of the strategies are discursive or culturally responsive strategies and are very good at sharing power and preventing a few voices from doing most of the speaking. “One powerpoint and one speaker equals one person engaged.”
Understand and agree on meeting roles – like a literature circle, good groups have specific roles, including engaged participant, facilitator, recorder, and role or knowledge authorities. Some specific norms of collaboration help those roles be more specific. In many meetings I am involved in, the facilitator and the authority/knowledge person are the same. We discussed why that is an issue. Small strong groups often don’t need a facilitator.
Engaging in cognitive conflict – Groups don’t get better without the opportunity for cognitive conflict. We learned structures designed to help create greater depth in understanding between people. The teaching distinguishes between C-Type conflict (cognitive, substantive, and issues related) and A-type conflict (affective, focused on personal anger or resentment). We tried an assumption wall as a way to increase safety and depersonalize. It would be good for courageous conversations with students as well.
I can see how a number of these structures can help a meeting be more effective, and high functioning groups elements are awesome for interactive or collaborative learning in the classroom. You can learn much more at the specific process to get there in the thinking collaborative resources. I recommend searching based on your purpose. For those of you who love your cell or tablet, there is also an ap for them.
I’ve spend some time now in a love/hate relationship with rubrics.
I can see how clearly articulated levels of achievement can guide students, but I also struggle with the limitations which can accompany a box full of criteria. In her book, How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading, Susan M. Brookhart helped me to sort, clarify and articulate my ideas about rubrics which has reignited my relationship with rubrics.
First she defined the purpose of rubrics as “coherent sets of criteria and descriptions of levels of performance for these criteria.” (4) In the following videoclip, Brookhart explains how rubrics can benefit student learning if they are properly constructed to encourage levels of performance rather than being a list of performance tasks.
What kinds of rubrics are there?
Analytic Trait: has separate sections for each demonstration of skill/knowledge. These are more commonly used and can help facilitate specific feedback.
Holistic: a description for all criteria combined together. Although less commonly used, they can be quite valuable when feedback isn’t a primary goal, such as with final exams in high school.
Regardless of which style rubric you use, they should assess performance.
When is it better to use a checklist or another structure rather than rubrics?
If your information can be measured numerically rather than include described levels, consider using a checklist.
___ Title Page
___ Formatting (APA/MLA/Chicago Style)
___ Has 5 paragraphs
___ Uses a graph/image or other visual representation
What should I avoid when creating rubrics?
To ensure that rubrics measure and provide guidance about the learning here are some common mistakes that you can avoid:
Scoring more than one outcome per rubric: Ensure that you have given appropriate opportunity for students to learn and practice the outcomes which are being assessed. It becomes quite challenging to communicate levels of achievement and connect them to the classroom learning/examples with many outcomes.
Scoring non-learning (neatness, etc.): These elements may appear in a checklist for students to consider, but the assessment should only consider the achievement of outcomes.
Scoring by counting up parts rather than looking for evidence of proficiency in the outcome: Proficiency is the key idea here and is linked to the demonstration of learning against the curricular outcome. Although the parts are important, they should be considered in respect to quality rather than quantity.
Scoring for this students have not been cued to do: Clear targets are essential to measure learning. Students should have a clear understanding of what learning is being measured and what different levels of learning demonstration looks like.
Scoring for products rather than outcomes (16) : With outcomes based assessment, we’re aligning our assessments with the outcomes and weighing a variety of evidence to determine where the student is reliably demonstrating their learning at a given point in time.
What should I keep in mind when co-creating rubrics with students?
Having clearly articulated targets will help students understand where they are at in their own learning and also how they can improve. This has more impact with the following considerations:
student friendly language about outcomes (I will know I have learned this when I can…) (93)
use samples of student work to exemplify levels of performance
draft and revise the rubric with students as their learning evolves
have a clear understanding of the indicators used to measure learning
How do I convert my rubric into an average?
Okay, that’s a valid question, but this blog post just isn’t the best format to have such an immense conversation. Without exploring that concept in detail I’ll leave you with one idea to consider… Your rubric doesn’t need to start at 0. What I mean by that is if you have 4 categories they don’t have to be 0%, 25%, 50%, & 100%. There can be ranges and there are models which begin at 50%. My advice is to be thoughtful, clear and consistent to create fairness through assessment.
Thank you for taking the time to read this blog and if assessment continues to be an area of interest I suggest becoming involved professionally with committees and learning groups around this topic. Here are some other resources to consider:
The Saskatoon Teacher’s Association convention just finished and lots of teachers are asking about resources mentioned there called Concentus resources. I am also getting a number of requests for ways to infuse the TRC’s Calls to Action in the curriculum. Here are two new resources (available for free) that can help us all promote tolerance, social justice, and engagement within learning.
I like the Concentus materials because they are designed by Saskatchewan teachers to fit our K-12 Social/History/Native Studies outcomes, are in French and English, and help teachers with how to engage students with their communities, Canada, and the world. You can see your teacher librarian to get support finding and using the resources.
The Ministry of Education, thanks to an awesome consultant Stephenie, just shared a simple summary of all the details, which I am quoting verbatim:
To extend the impact and reach of the Citizenship Resources, a companion document entitled Courageous Conversations was developed. The document is intended as a resource for teachers as they engage students in conversations that matter.
Teachers work hard to give student who aren’t yet successful extra time and support. However, it isn’t immediately obvious how engaging in outcomes-based assessment help a teacher respond to a student who is struggling. This video describes the connection between responsive instruction and why we assessing based on outcomes.
I’ve aligned my grade book with curricular outcomes, now what?
After the initial steps to convert the gradebook to measure outcome achievement, doors in my mind begin to open which question how we assess learning — at least they did for me.
What defines mastery?
What evidence provides the best evidence of student learning?
This morning a group of dedicated SPS professionals gathered to discuss the emerging possibilities of assessment now that they’ve converted to outcomes based assessment. Through discussion and panel presentation, we explored these questions and more. Although we discovered that no size fits all, it became clear that we weren’t in this alone.
Guskey invites the following three criteria to consider as alternatives to traditional averaging:
Give priority to the most recent evidence
Give priority to the most comprehensive evidence
Give priority to evidence related to the most important skills
I would consider adding a fourth point: Give consideration to the student’s ability to consistently or reliably perform/understand at that level.
We heard from 4 panellists who have each undertaken personal journeys to improve their assessment practices. Here is my loose interpretation of each:
Lisa Aune currently uses a 3 point scale to assess and after consideration she is moving to a 4 point scale to represent mastery of knowledge and skills in the Arts. She also uses a climbing criteria which reflect a growth mindset and considers the complexity of ability at the end of a semester versus that of the beginning.
Murray Guest has changed the conversation in his Physics classes from marks to learning by implementing a 5 point scale of descriptors such as “mastery” and “very good”. He also considers the weighting of complexity when converting to a 100 point percentage.
Sheldon Lewchuk uses the opportunity of a final assessment for students to demonstrate outcome growth and uses this format to provide opportunity to demonstrate new learning in Science class. He then negotiates, with the student, an appropriate mark for that outcome which considers the newly demonstrated skills and understanding.
Candace Elliott-Jensen (me) presented the concept of mark blocking. When grading in English Language Arts, I would mark using intervals of 5% with clear expectations of skills required to obtain each level.
All of these practices have one thing in common: strong understanding of curricula and clearly communicated targets for student achievement.
For more information please consider the following resources:
Students aren’t able to understand the material I give them.
Is this a concern you’ve grappled with? With content heavy curricula, it’s important that students have the necessary skills to understand a variety of text. A study group of secondary teachers (SLAM) got together to research how students digest text and this is what we found…
There are 6 different areas which contribute to helping students understand text:
Connecting to Prior Knowledge
Making connections within the text
When students have all these skills in place, they are better able to understand text and take on the new content learning. When there are gaps in these skills, many students struggle against the text rather than focusing on the new content.
What are these skills and how can they help students better achieve in my classroom?
Connecting to prior knowledge allows students to activate their own experiences and learning in order to apply them to the new content. This can include content knowledge such as where they might have encountered these ideas or even textual knowledge about how to use text features such as titles and diagrams as precursors to learning.
Vocabulary is key within the subject areas. Each discipline has words which unlock the doors to learning in that subject area including: estimation, cycles, theme, monarchy, etc. Knowledge of these terms allows students to begin to collect ideas and reason in a discipline specific manner.
Summary allows students to connect the main ideas and vocabulary in a text to create deeper meaning. The interconnectedness of ideas is often foundational to concept attainment.
Inferencing is where students consider what’s not explicitly stated in a text. Considerations such as what is the purpose of a text and who is the intended audience.
Connecting the text to self, text and the world allows students to apply their personal experiences to the new information as well as apply it to other information or occurrences around them. This process creates a sense of personal relevance for the reader.
Metacognition is the ability to reflect about the strategies employed to decode text. Students may understand this best as: what did you do when you didn’t understand or how would you help a friend who didn’t understand.
To help the students decode the subject specific text in your class consider these skills when presenting text.
For more information on this topic consider the following:
As adults who work in educational settings we are trained to lead students through an array of experiences, some that even we are unfamiliar with. And often when there is a difference in culture, we are more afraid to be wrong then we are curious about what is right.
It may be helpful in Indigenous activities to separate the types of activities into the categories of protocol and ceremony. At times we are overwhelmed by the thought of undertaking ceremony, when really all we need to do is follow protocol. These are not official definitions, think of this more like a helpful framework for approaching different cultural activities.
Protocol: are the rules detailing how certain activities should be carried out and how participants must conduct themselves. Protocols are easily learned and should always be followed as a sign of respect to a culture and its participants.
Examples of protocols include
Ceremony: is an event within which we formally invite the creator to witness our actions. Ceremony should only be undertaken by members of a culture or individuals who have been gifted the ceremony but Elders or members of a community who understand the practice and norms for doing so.
Examples of a ceremony can include
If you are looking for more information about what protocol is and why we use it, check out this blog post.
The beautiful thing about all of this knowledge is that it is only a respectful question away. If you are ever unsure, just ask.
I know it is important to invite Indigenous leaders, like Traditional Knowledge Keepers, into my classroom, but I am not always sure what to do. Here is some key advice I got recently from consultant Tracy Laverty when I asked for some practical advice for teachers. She was quick to tell me she isn’t an expert, but her advice is helpful and simple. If you do these things, you can breathe.
What is protocol?
Like what we do when students graduate, protocols are what we use in social situations to communicate respect and formality. When we invite elders in to our classrooms, we follow established protocols to demonstrate respect for the learning being offered.
What should I do when I have an Indigenous guest in the classroom?
Ask that guest how they wished to be honored (all Indigenous cultures and people within them are not the same – thinking they are is called “pan-Indigenous.” It is like trying to speak “the language of Europeans.”)
Be clear about your goal. The Elder or Traditional Knowledge Keeper will do a better job for the class with more information.
Discuss a good way to wrap up and move forward
It is okay to ask if an honorarium is needed. Go ahead and ask.